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The professional fishery in Thassos, as in remainder Greece, is separated in two big branch: coastal and medium…

The coastal fishery

The branch this include usually small ships (5-12 metres), which they use static tools, that is to say tools that remain [akinita] in water and arrest the going through fishes or other fish catches. Such are the nets, the trawl lines and the traps, as [ntaoylia]. In the coastal fishery is included also a energetic tool, [bintzotrata]. This tool allocates a trawl with which is encircled a coastal region and afterwards is drawn to the ship which remains real estate near the coast. The coastal fishery is practised by fishermen with small mainly ships, which work round the island. The number of ships with professional authorisation of fishery amounts in 207, from which however least from 170 it is actively with total of capacity 423 [koroys] and medium age of 17,3 years. The total of ships of coastal fishery in the Prefecture Kavala amounts in the 500 roughly, in total of 18.349 all Greece. In Thassos it is found, therefore, roughly the half potential of ships of coastal fishery of Prefecture and, if we judge from the population of island, the proportion of ships is clue that the piscatorial activity is a enough usual pastime between the residents. The amateur fishery is also very intense in the island with 180 ships. Be marked that, while the number of ships of amateur fishery was increased the last decade (from 146 in 180 ships, increase 23,2%), the number of ships of professional fishery remained almost constant.
The piscatorial tool that is mainly used for the coastal fishery in Thassos is the [ntaoyli], contrary to remainder Greece where in the coastal fishery prevail the [monomena] nets. The [ntaoyli] is a trap that is placed in big numbers round Thassos and arrests a lot of species with mainer fish catch the octopuses, that constitute in percentage the bigger department of production of coastal fishery. The remainder piscatorial tools that are used by the coastal fishermen in the island are the trawl lines (mainly in the southern department), the [monomena] nets (a piscatorial tool that is constituted by three layers of net) and the levels nets, with only layer of net that they touch usually concrete types as [koytsomoyres]. Also, are used the [mprakarola], fishing that is to say with lines and bait and the glass with the harpoon. The piscatorial activity practises all per year, apart from the 2-3 wintry months that a lot of ships stop because the decreased fish catches but also the bad weather.

The island also has four from the nine [bintzotrates] that they fish in the Prefecture Kavala. From them however the three already have while asked their integration in program of withdrawl of ship, the use of this tool, according to recent legislation of OJ, will be prohibited from 1/1/2001.

Medium fishery

The branch this are constituted by bigger ships (15-30 metres) with big horsepower. It includes the motor trawlers and the fishing boats, which practise energetic fishery, using drawn or circular piscatorial tools. The motor trawler uses the trawl which [syretai] in the bottom and arrests without discrimination benthic, as are said, fishes or [patopsara], that is to say what lives on or near t o n of seabed, as are the cod, [peskantritses], [koytsoymoyres], [batoi], etc. Also it arrests cephalopods, as octopuses, [thrapsala], cuttlefishes, [moschioys] etc., as well as crustaceans, as prawns, crawfishes, etc.

The fishing boat uses a big net with which [kyklonetai] a concrete region, where, with the help of electronic bodies (radar, etc), are located big flocks from [afropsara], that is to say anchovy, sardine, mackerels, horse-mackerels etc.

In the medium fishery be governed 8 ships from the island in total of 38 prefecture and 730 country. From these 5 it is fishing boat, 1 motor trawler and 2 mixedly, that is to say has also authorisation motor trawler also fishing boat.

The piscatorial production

The annual production of fishes from the coastal fishery in the island amounts, according to our estimates, in 600 roughly tons. The elements of Statistical Service report that the production of all Greece from the coastal fishery amounts in 76.882 tons (elements 1996), however in them is not included the production by 12.600 coastal ships, which have machine of force of smaller 19 HP and which is appreciated that amounts in the 30.000 tons, [anebazontas] thus the total of production of coastal fishery in all Greece in 100.000 tons roughly.

Here it should it is marked that in Thassos, as in very a lot of regions of Greece, exists also the problem of estimate of production from the coastal fishery while on one side the more near fish-wharf where it should are discharged the fish catches are found in Kavala, and [afeteroy] the Cooperative of coastal fishermen of island are not organised so as to assembles the fish catches, thing that creates big problem in the recording of piscatorial production and activity. Accordingly, she is not possible somebody elementary, be it, treatment of data, so that exists the correct briefing on the course of branch and on the problems his, while situation of fish catches. This elements are extremely essential for the treatment of metres of protection of types and rational growth of branch.

The production by the medium fishery in the island amounts in 1.000 tons roughly in total of 5-6.000 tons of Prefecture Kavala and 75.000 tons of all Greece. It should it is reported that the elements of medium fishery are more precise because the total of almost fish catches is trafficked in by the fish-wharf of Kavala. Of course exists a percentage which it is not easy to be appreciated because it concerns the fish catches that are discharged in other fishes-wharf of Greece. This happens because the ships are moved in various regions, mainly of course in the region of V. Aegean, following the bigger density of fish catches. Parallel, ships from other regions of Greece discharge fish catches when they are found in the wider region of Prefecture Kavala.

The piscicultures

As for this activity, it deserves it is marked that Thassos is one from the three regions of Northern Greece where exists intensive culture of marine fishes. The other two are in Chalkidiki, in [Boyrboyroy] and in Olympic Games. The unit of pisciculture that exists in Thassos, between Port and [Prinoy], is capacity of 50 tons and she produces bassfish and gilthead sea breams which are trafficked in mainly in cities of Northern Greece.

The problems

In general problems of fishery are very many. Mainest, of course, concerns the bending of piscatorial production. Between 1996 and 1997 the total piscatorial production in Greece was decreased at 21%, while only from the fishing boats at 22% and from coastal at 33%. The problem is also presented in the Prefecture Kavala where the total production was decreased from 1994 up to today at 19%.

The piscatorial production in the wider region of Trick of Kavala they are expected to influence negatively the next years and the dams in the river Nestos, as it happened also in [Strymoniko] trick. As are known, the dam of Strimonas in [Lithotopo] - that it was manufactured in 1930 - and the shaping of [fragmalimnis] [Kerkinis] they interrupted the rythm and the volume of transport of [chersogenon] [biogenon] salts in [Strymoniko] trick so that is decreased his productivity. The first conclusions from recent research of Institute of Piscatorial Research Kavala in [Strymoniko] Trick show that the gulf is henceforth poor in nutritious salts, in [fytoplagkto] and in [zooplagkto], which constitute the base of trophic chain of fishes.

Other in general problems

  1. The age of piscatorial fleet, after the 75% of total are ships of age of bigger 10 years.
  2. The lack of professional training of fishermen.
  3. The difficult conditions of work.
  4. The high cost of piscatorial equipment, fuels and piscatorial supplies.

The more special problems concern main the coastal fishery, which from her nature maintains intensely the local characteristics, [gi]' this and is useful they are recorded for the case of Thassos. In opposition, the medium fishery has problems that present almost Pan-Hellenic distribution. The coastal fishery as branch does not appear to enjoy appreciable attention neither from Greece but also not from the European Union. A line from special problems they are reported below:

  1. Exists intense problem in the existing circuit of distribution of fish catches, where is observed direct dependence of producer from the representative - tradesman.
  2. The breaking to pieces of fishermen in a lot of small harbours does not help in their organisation and in the promotion of their production.
  3. The ships are not every healthy economic enterprises and many times over are burdened with loans.
  4. Often they face intense problems for direct cover regular and extraordinary expenses (oils, nets, supplies, etc).
  5. Usually, financier in this expenses is the tradesman, to which the producer commits to allocate his future production.
  6. [Exaitias] more the tradesmen have acquired regulating role in the circuit of distribution and the conditions of marketing are not anymore transparent and free, while their requirements for under-tariffing and statement of decreased quantities always are satisfied.
  7. In regions where does not exist easy access in fish-wharf, as in the case of Thassos, the fisherman is unable he attends and supervises the auctioning of his products, therefore the transaction of sale undertakes representative, that is usually himself the wholesaler.
  8. The cost of piscatorial equipment is high, while almost each year should becomes change of four teams of nets that is used, because deterioration.
  9. The phenomenon is also intensified by the destructions that are suffered by the dolphins and the turtles. Thus, permanent fair demand of fishermen constitutes also their compensation for the damage that suffers their tools from the all protected types.
  10. Exists intense problem of competition with the amateur fishery, which the [anexelekti] action of, same the summer months, decreases [ichthyapothemata].
  11. Himself coastal have also these direct responsibility for the reduction [ichthyapothematon], [exaitias] the intense pressure that many times over they practise with the applied piscatorial method. As an example, [ntaoylia] they are permanently placed in the sea creating one impenetrable wall for the fishes that should be moved in order to they are nourished and they are repeated.

The proposals

The general objectives that should be achieved in the sector of fishery are:
The [aeiforiki] exploitation [ichthyoapothematon] with the establishment of system of management suitable for the region, that will result from serious scientific research.

  1. The maintenance of places of work.
  2. The improvement of competitiveness of fleet.
  3. The improvement of quality of fish catches at the unloading and sale.

This objectives could be realised through a mesh of metres and energies, as below:

  1. Creation of protected areas, where will be prohibited the fishery.
  2. Manufacture of artificial reefs in specifically selected regions.
  3. Issuing of new authorisations of fishery only in educated individuals, or graduates of faculties of fishery, or seminars of training.
  4. Control of unverifiable amateur fishery.
  5. Recording of locomotions of piscatorial ships, particularly the medium fishery and their connection with concrete piscatorial fields, so as to it can become better management than the piscatorial cooperatives or the teams of producers.
  6. Restriction of number and horsepower of ships of medium fishery, which they fish in concrete piscatorial fields.
  7. Compensation of damage that suffers the piscatorial tools from the all protected species (dolphins, [fokies], turtles, etc).
  8. Cleansing of circuit of distribution of fish catches.
  9. Organisation of coastal fishermen for the collection and distribution of their fish catches, but also for their better representation in institutions of Greece and European Committee.

Manos Koytrakis
Researcher of Institute
Piscatorial Research Kavala

Everything. P. Oikonomidis
Professor of Aristotelian
University Thessalonica
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